Iron is an essential trace element for most forms of life, from bacteria to mammals. Its importance lies in its ability to mediate electron transfer.

Iron, while being among the body’s most abundant minerals, paradoxically represents the most prevalent global nutritional deficiency — Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA). IDA, characterized by extreme fatigue and dizziness, significantly impairs both quality of life and overall performance.  IDA affects all age groups, with children, women of reproductive age, and individuals undergoing medical interventions being particularly vulnerable.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that, worldwide, 2 billion people are anemic (25% of the worldwide population) and twice as many are iron deficient. 29.9% of women aged 15-49 years suffered from anaemia in 2019. The principal causes of iron deficiency encompass insufficient dietary intake, blood loss, malabsorption, pregnancy, infections, inflammation, and gastrointestinal disorders.

The most common IDA treatment is oral iron supplementation, which has been associated with gastrointestinal (GI) side effects such as constipation and bloating. These issues can lead to poor treatment adherence and the persistence of IDA symptoms.

Both iron deficiency and iron overload can cause oxidative stress. Iron’s dual ability to donate and accept electrons means that it can catalyze the conversion of hydrogen peroxide into free radicals. Free radicals can cause damage to a wide variety of cellular structures, and ultimately kill the cell.

NutriStella Iron Oral Spray is a delicious, long-lasting apple-flavored iron formula designed to support overall health and vitality while aiding in the reduction of tiredness and fatigue. Enriched with Vitamin B12 and B6, it synergistically supports blood function.NutriStella Iron Spray: Stomach and gut friendly, vegan, lactose, gluten, and GMO-free. Great taste, tooth-friendly (sugar-free), long-lasting, superior bioavailability and absorption. The air-free bottle protects the contents from the growth of microorganisms and ensures a longer shelf life of the product. Not tested on animals.

The human body needs iron for oxygen transport. Oxygen is required for the functioning, survival and proliferation of nearly all cell types. Oxygen is transported from the lungs to the rest of the body bound by heme iron present in hemoglobin in red blood cells. In muscles cells, iron binds oxygen to myoglobin, which regulates its release.

Iron is the most abundant essential trace element in the human body. The total content of iron in the body is about 3–5 g with most of it in the blood (about 2,5g) and the rest in the liver, bone marrow, and muscles in the form of heme.

Humans use 20 mg of iron each day for the production of new red blood cells, much of which is recycled from old red blood cells. The total amount of loss for healthy people in the developed world amounts to an estimated average of 1 mg a day for men, and 1.5–2 mg a day for women with regular menstrual periods. People with gastrointestinal infections and iron absorption disorders, often lose more.

Most of the iron in the body is recycled by the reticuloendothelial system, which breaks down aged red blood cells. In contrast to iron uptake and recycling, there is no physiologic regulatory mechanism for excreting iron. People lose a small but steady amount by blood loss, injuries, sweating and by epithelial sloughing.

Iron losses are covered mainly by food. The amount of iron absorbed compared to the amount ingested is typically low, but may range from 5% to as much as 35% depending on circumstances and type/source of iron. Generally, the best-absorbed forms of iron come from animal products (heme iron) and allow absorption of from 15% to 35% of intake. Absorption of dietary iron in iron salt form (as in most supplements) varies somewhat according to the body’s need for iron, and is usually between 10% and 20% of iron intake.

The human body’s rate of iron absorption appears to respond to a variety of interdependent factors, including total iron stores, the extent to which the bone marrow is producing new red blood cells, the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood, and the oxygen content of the blood. The body absorbs less iron during times of inflammation, in order to deprive bacteria of iron. The iron absorption can be also suppressed by mucosal block – reaction of the body for ingested large iron load.

Ingested iron can cause changes to the gut microbiota, aiding the promotion of pathogenic species and decreasing beneficial protective species. Iron is vital for methanogenic archebacteria, which rely on iron for growth and metabolism. Increased intestinal methane has been associated with slowing of intestinal transit, constipation, and bloating.

The intrabuccal iron administration is more effective than the gastrointestinal absorption, which for an equal iron saturation is more susceptible to the onset of toxicity correlated with free iron.

Vitamin B12 plays a crucial role in red blood cell formation, nerve function, and DNA synthesis. The average adult has about 2-5 milligrams of vitamin B12 stored in the body, mainly in the liver. The recommended daily intake is approximately 2.4 micrograms for adults. Good dietary sources include meat, fish, dairy products, and fortified foods.

Adults (aged 19 to 64) need about 1.5 micrograms a day of vitamin B12. If you eat meat, fish or dairy foods, you should be able to get enough vitamin B12 from your diet. But as vitamin B12 is not found naturally in foods such as fruit, vegetables and grains, vegans may not get enough of it.

Oral mucosa administration of B12 is ca. 30% more efficient than intramuscular injections.

Vitamin B6, also known as pyridoxine is essential for brain development, immune function, and the metabolism of proteins, among other roles. The average adult has around 20-100 milligrams of vitamin B6 in the body. The recommended daily intake is about 1.3-2.0 milligrams for adults. Good dietary sources include poultry, fish, potatoes, and fortified cereals. The amount of vitamin B6 adults (aged 19 to 64) need is about 1.4mg a day for men and 1.2mg a day for women.


An iron deficiency is seen most commonly in children, women who are menstruating or pregnant, vegans and vegetarians, athlets and elderly.

Iron deficiency first affects the storage of iron in the body, and depletion of these stores is associated with some vague and non-specific symptoms. Since iron is primarily required for hemoglobin, iron deficiency anemia is the primary clinical manifestation of iron deficiency. Iron-deficient people will suffer or die from organ damage well before their cells run out of the iron needed for intracellular processes like electron transport.

Deficiency symptoms

  • Fatigue, weakness
  • Lightheadedness
  • Confusion, loss of concentration
  • Sensitivity to cold
  • Shortness of breath
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Pale skin
  • Hair loss, brittle nails
  • Pica: cravings for dirt, clay, ice, or other non-food items


Toxicity is rare because the body regulates iron absorption and will absorb less if iron stores are adequate. Excessive iron occurs most often from taking high-dose supplements when not needed or from having a genetic condition that stores too much iron.

Overdosing symptoms

  • Constipation
  • Upset stomach
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Abdominal pain

NutriStella Iron Oral Spray

Recommended dose and administration: Can be used directly before or after meal. Adults: 2 sprays daily under the tongue or inside cheek is providing daily 7 mg (50% NRV*) of iron, 250 μg Vitamin B12 (10 000% NRV*) and 2.8 mg Vitamin B6 (200%  NRV*),

*Nutrient Reference Value

Can be used directly before or after meal.

Children under 12 years: consult your doctor regarding daily dose.

Please note

Many ingested iron supplements require administration 1 hour before the meal or 2 hours after the meal  to avoid interactions with  food ingredients.

Iron Absorption Enhancers

  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamine A and Beta-caroten
  • Meat

Iron Inhibitors

  • Foods containing phytate (i.e. whole grains, cereals, soy, nuts, and legumes

Even a small amount of phytate can significantly decrease iron absorption.

  • Calcium and calcium rich foods. Regarding supplements, calcium and iron supplements should be taken at different times of the day if possible.
  • Foods containing polyphenols. Polyphenols are found in various amounts in plant foods and beverages, including vegetables, fruits, some cereals and legumes, tea, coffee, and wine. To counteract the negative effect of polyphenols, be sure to leave a couple of hours between your iron-rich meal and your afternoon tea or coffee.

Purified water,  glycerol (humectant), xylitol (sweetener), ferric sodium EDTA, ferric ammonium citrate, vitamin B6 (pyridoxine HCl), citric acid (acidity regulator), potassium sorbate (preservative), natural apple flavoring, vitamin B12 (methylcobalamin).

Lactose, gluten and GMO free.

Tooth friendly formula (sugar-free)

Long lasting

Airless bottle


People following a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as those limiting meat consumption, face an increased risk of iron deficiency. Additionally, women aged 14 to 50, children and adolescents during growth, athletes, and individuals with intestinal diseases have elevated iron needs. NutriStella helps address these deficiencies while minimizing the risk of over-supplementation.


This supplement is administered through the oral mucosa, ensuring rapid absorption into the bloodstream without being compromised by the digestive system. Compared to conventional forms like capsules or syrups, this method allows for a significantly higher absorption of active ingredients. The air-free technology in the bottle protects the product from microbes and decomposition, extending its shelf life.


Each dose contains up to 7 mg of iron in the highly bioavailable form of ferric sodium EDTA (2 to 3 times more bioavailable than other mineral sources of iron, according to the scientific opinion of EFSA/European Food Authority) and ferric ammonium citrate. This dosage ensures compatibility with the stomach and intestines, and one pack provides up to 75 effective doses.


Iron, an essential trace element, supports the formation of red blood cells, combats fatigue, provides energy, aids in oxygen transport, and enhances immunity. NutriStella Iron, enriched with Vitamin B12 and B6, synergistically supports blood function.


Easy to use with no swallowing required, this supplement is convenient, aerosol-free, and airplane-safe. There’s no need to wait between meals. It’s free from lactose, gluten, GMO, soy, gelatin, magnesium stearate, titanium dioxide, artificial flavors, and colors. The supplement boasts a delightful natural apple flavor and is recommended for both vegans and vegetarians. It is manufactured in HACCP and ISO 22000 certified facilities in the EU.



Hemoglobin, a protein within red blood cells (erythrocytes), is essential for transporting oxygen and removing carbon dioxide, a waste product, from the body.

Red blood cells are produced in the bone marrow and typically have a lifespan of about 120 days before naturally dying. In cases of iron deficiency, the bone marrow generates fewer blood cells. As the deficiency gets worse, the cells may become smaller. Recent studies have also shown that iron deficiency accelerates the suicidal death of red blood cells, shortening their lifespan.

As an essential micronutrient, iron is vital for the functioning, metabolism, and proliferation of virtually all living cells, including those of the immune system.

In infectious diseases, both invading pathogens and mammalian cells, including immune system cells, rely on iron to sustain their activities. Microbial iron uptake is linked to the virulence of many human pathogens. Simultaneously, sequestering iron from bacteria and other microorganisms is an efficient host defense mechanism known as 'nutritional immunity.’ Depleting iron levels is believed to starve invading pathogens, limiting disease progression and severity.

During acute infections, host-driven iron withdrawal inhibits pathogen growth. However, in cases of chronic immune activation due to persistent infection, autoimmune diseases, or malignancy, iron is sequestered not only from infectious agents but also from red cell progenitors. This mechanism contributes to the anemia of chronic inflammation.

Importantly, iron deficiencies increase vulnerability to infections, emphasizing the crucial role of iron in maintaining a robust immune response.

Disorders in iron metabolism are notable examples where fatigue prominently manifests as a leading symptom. Whether it’s an iron deficiency or overload, tiredness is a common feature.

Anaemia, a condition related to iron deficiency, can lead to chronic fatigue syndrome. It not only affects the immune system but also results in sleep deprivation, headaches, low blood pressure, and can impair cognitive skills and productivity.

Individuals suffering from anaemia may also experience dizziness and heart palpitations. Coupled with extreme fatigue, these symptoms can induce irritability and severely impact concentration. Such conditions can adversely affect both social life and work efficiency.

Fatigue is more than a simple feeling of sleepiness; it can have a profound impact on overall health if the underlying cause isn’t identified and addressed. In the case of undetected anaemia, vital organs may experience oxygen loss, impairing their function over time and leading to irreversible deterioration.

Non-heme iron, the predominant metallic ion in the brain, is crucial for various core processes in brain development, including myelination, dendritogenesis, and neurotransmitter synthesis. Its accumulation in the brain is a continuous process that intensifies with age.

In adulthood, the brain accounts for approximately 20% of whole-body metabolic energy expenditure, a proportion that rises to 30–50% during early human development. Given its role in metabolic energy production, brain iron likely plays a critical role in the maturation of the human nervous system. To meet the demands of this maturation process, non-heme iron accumulates rapidly during the first two decades of life, continuing at a slower rate across the lifespan.

Research in children indicates that higher brain iron content is associated with faster processing speed and higher general intelligence. This iron-related improvement accounts for 21.4% of age-related enhancements in processing speed and 12.5% in general intelligence. These findings underscore the central neurobiological role of non-heme iron in the development of crucial cognitive abilities during childhood.

Moreover, studies suggest that brain iron deficiency at any life stage can disrupt metabolic processes, leading to changes in cognitive and behavioral functioning. Women of reproductive age are particularly vulnerable to iron deficiency, putting them at a heightened risk of cognitive alterations due to this deficiency.


Developmental variation in regional brain iron and its relation to cognitive functions in childhood

Developmental variation in regional brain iron and its relation to cognitive functions in childhood

Eisen ist ein essentielles Spurenelement für die meisten Lebensformen, von Bakterien bis zu Säugetieren. Seine Bedeutung liegt in der Fähigkeit, Elektronen zu übertragen.

Iron treatment normalizes cognitive functioning in young women

Iron treatment normalizes cognitive functioning in young women

Eisen ist ein essentielles Spurenelement für die meisten Lebensformen, von Bakterien bis zu Säugetieren. Seine Bedeutung liegt in der Fähigkeit, Elektronen zu übertragen.

Oral Iron Supplementation—Gastrointestinal Side Effects and the Impact on the Gut Microbiota

Oral Iron Supplementation—Gastrointestinal Side Effects and the Impact on the Gut Microbiota

Eisen ist ein essentielles Spurenelement für die meisten Lebensformen, von Bakterien bis zu Säugetieren. Seine Bedeutung liegt in der Fähigkeit, Elektronen zu übertragen.


The iron absorption from intestinal mucosa may vary depending on the source of iron, the actual need of the body and the normal mucosa  absorption ability. The ingested iron can be absorbed up to 35% from the animal sources (meat, fish, seafood) and up to 20% from other sources (plant, supplements) and can be impaired by body’s regulatory system or mucosal block as well as malabsorption due to digestive tract diseases and inflammation. The buccal mucosa absorption is superior to the tranditional gastrointestinal route and allows roughly double efficiency.
To determine it precisely you need to test iron level.
The daily demand of a healthy men is at the 1mg level, the one of menstruating woman at 1,5-2mg. Though people under deficiency suspicion may need more.
Traditional iron supplements are most effective while taken outside of meals. Not the case with NutriStella Iron Spray.It is save to keep 2 hour window between iron suplement and the meal. Please note that calcium supplements require stricter regimen and should be taken in the different part of the day than ingested iron supplements.
The excess, unabsorbed iron can potentially be harmful. In the human body, iron availability to microorganisms is generally extremely limited, due to innate iron withholding mechanisms that aim to prevent growth of pathogenic invaders.  The oral administration of supplementary iron destroys this balance and causes alterations of the gut microbiota composition and metabolism. Certain pathogenic enteric bacteria can, however, deal with this stress at the expense of other members of the gut microbiota, while their virulence also seems to be stimulated in an iron-rich intestinal environment.
No. Iron defcits depend on the nutritional patterns, life style and specific body’s propensity and condition.