Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), a water-soluble micronutrient, is required for normal cellular functions, growth, and development. Although most mammals synthesize vitamin C in the liver, during the course of evolution, humans have lost the ability to make vitamin C and must obtain it from diet. The lack of intristic supply and regulation causes a large proportion of the human population to be in a state of various levels of permanent or transient deficiencies. As vitamin C is a potent antioxidant, acting as a free radical scavenger, critical iron homeostasis promotor and an essential cofactor in numerous, vital enzymatic reactions, therefore even moderate deficiency can have serious health consequences.

Given the growing burden of western diet, pollution and stress inducing inflammation and oxidative damage, potential protective effects of vitamin C against cardiovascular diseases, a range of malignancies and multiple infectious diseases, improving vitamin C intake may prove to be a cheap and effective health intervention.

Liposomal technology offers enhanced absorption of vitamin C preventing the ascorbic acid molecules from degradation and thus improving its bioavailability and efficiency.

Vegan. Free from lactose, gluten, and GMO. Enjoyable taste. Tooth-friendly formula (sugar-free). Long-lasting. Enhanced bioavailability and absorption.

The disease caused by vitamin C deficiency is called scurvy. It can lead to anemia, exhaustion, spontaneous bleeding, limb pain, swelling, and sometimes ulceration of the gums and loss of teeth. Further clinical abnormalities resulting from Vitamin C deficiency include delayed or impaired wound healing, bone and connective tissue disorders and vasomotor instability.

The total body content of vitamin C ranges from 300 mg (at near scurvy) to about 2 g (normal levels). High levels of vitamin C are maintained in cells and tissues (97%), and are highest in leukocytes (white blood cells), eyes, adrenal glands, pituitary gland, and brain. Relatively low levels of vitamin C are found in extracellular fluids (3%), such as plasma, red blood cells, and saliva.

Since humans cannot synthesize their own vitamin C it should be absorbed by mucosa and carried through the circulation to the various organs. The intricate system of ascorbic acid fluxes in the human body prevents excessive fluctuation of its concentrations inside cells as required by metabolic processes.

Approximately 70%–90% of vitamin C can be absorbed at moderate intakes of 30–180 mg/day. However, at doses above 1,000 mg/day, absorption falls to less than 50%. The supplementation exhibits low toxicity since kidneys remove any excess of vitamin C preventing overdose.

The vitamin C blood concentration, in addition to supply and elimination, also depends on redistribution. During times of low dietary intake, vitamin C is reabsorbed by the kidneys rather than excreted. This process prevents from deficiency during malnutrition periods.

The D-A-CH (German-Austrian-Swiss) Nutrition Societies provide intake recommendations of between 30 and 85 mg per day for 4- to under 15-year-old children. For older children and adolescents as well as for adults, age- and gender-dependent intake recommendations were derived: for 15- to under 19-year-olds 90 mg per day (female) and 105 mg per day (male), and for adults (19 to 65 years and older) 95 mg per day (female) and 110 mg per day (male). For pregnant women (from the 4th month of pregnancy) and for lactating women, 105 mg and 125 mg per.

The German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) recommends an upper limit of 250 mg (800 IU) of vitamin C per daily dose of a dietary supplement.


Vitamin C deficiency manifests symptomatically after 8 to 12 weeks of inadequate intake and presents as irritability and anorexia. A deficiency may result from:

  • a poor diet lacking in fresh fruits and vegetables inc. western di
  • illnesses such as anorexia and other mental health issues
  • restrictive diets due to allergies, difficulty orally ingesting foods or other reasons
  • older age
  • type 1 diabetes who have high vitamin C requirements
  • disorders of the GI (gastro-intestinal) tract like inflammatory bowel disease
  • iron overload, which leads to the wasting of vitamin C by the kidneys
  • excessive consumption of alcohol or use of certain substances
  • cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke
  • late or unsuccessful weaning of infants can also lead to scurvy
  • polluted air

Deficiency symptoms

Early signs:

  • loss of appetite,
  • weight loss,
  • fatigue,
  • irritability
  • lethargy

Within 1-3 months, there may be signs of:

  • anemia
  • myalgia, or pain, including bone pain
  • swelling, or edema
  • petechiae, or small red spots resulting from bleeding under the skin
  • corkscrew hairs
  • gum disease and loss of teeth
  • poor wound healing
  • shortness of breath
  • mood changes, and depression,



Even at high doses, vitamin C is not known to be toxic or to cause any serious adverse effects. The excess of Vitamin C is excreted in the urine.

Overdosing symptoms

The most common side effect of high vitamin C intake is digestive distress. The most common digestive symptoms of excessive vitamin C intake are diarrhea and nausea.

High vitamin C intake is not only associated with greater amounts of urinary oxalate but also linked to the development of kidney stones.

Due to its acidity conventional Vitamin C may be harmful for people prone to acid reflux.

NutriStella Liposomal Vitamin C

DIRECTIONS: Adults and children over 3 years of age: one spray per day under the tongue. Take on empty stomach, at least 15 min before eating. Before first use, press the pump 2-3 times until the contents appear. Shake before use. Rinse nozzle with water when congested.

Please note

Because vitamin C is water-soluble, traditional supplements are best absorbed on an empty stomach—either 30 minutes before a meal or 2 hours after. However, there is controversy regarding whether vitamin C should be taken without food due to its irritation properties. Many vitamin C manufacturers advise compromising on absorption for the benefit of patient comfort. Notably, this is not a concern with NutriStella products.

Vitamin C can also be taken in supplemental form at any time during the day. While there isn’t enough evidence to specifically support taking vitamin C at night, individuals with low vitamin C levels often experience sleep quality deprivation. It appears safe to take vitamin C before the evening, as it may boost energy levels, potentially making it difficult to fall asleep.

Exercise caution when taking Vitamin C with other substances, such as medications, as its potent antioxidant properties may alter their effectiveness.

Vitamin C Absorption Enhancers

The only scientifically proven boosters of Vitamin C absorption are liposomes.

Vitamin C is prone to degradation in the gastrointestinal tract, particularly in the presence of metal ions. Encapsulated in liposomes—small, spherical lipid-based structures consisting of one or more bilayer phospholipids—Vitamin C retains its properties. Liposomes not only reduce vitamin C degradation, slow down its release, and enhance absorption, but also mitigate potential disturbances in gastrointestinal tract functioning. Research shows that liposomal formulas demonstrate 2x better absorption than conventional Vitamin C formulas.

Our liposomal spray formulations outperform ingested liposomal forms like tablets or capsules because they are rapidly absorbed via the oral mucosa, bypassing the traditional gastrointestinal route. Vitamin absorption through the oral mucosa is 3-5 times greater than the conventional route.

Vitamin C Absorption Inhibitors:

Vitamin C is transported through the intestine via both glucose-sensitive and glucose-insensitive mechanisms. The presence of large quantities of sugar in the intestine can slow absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, consuming sugar introduces more free radicals to the body that Vitamin C may sacrifice itself to neutralize, instead of neutralizing the free radicals in other areas of the organism. So, even if Vitamin C gets absorbed, it may not be put to optimal use. se

The bioavailability of vitamin C is often reduced in conditions such as stress, alcohol intake, smoking, fever, viral illnesses, the use of antibiotics and painkillers, exposure to petroleum products or carbon monoxide, and heavy metals toxicity.

Purified water, Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid), sunflower lecithin (emulsifier), sodium bicarbonate (acidity regulator), glycerol (humectant), steviol glycosides (sweetener), xanthan gum (thickener), potassium sorbate (preservative), α-tocopheryl acetate (antioxidant), natural lemon flavouring.

Suitable for vegans. Does not contain artificial flavourings, colors, oils, salt, yeast. Lactose, gluten and GMO free.

Tastes good

Tooth friendly formula (sugar-free)

Long lasting

NutriStella Liposomal Vitamin C has an almost neutral pH and is therefore mild for mucosa and the digestive system. Not buffered with calcium, it is a wise choice for individuals with cardiovascular issues or those already supplementing with calcium.

Vitamin C, being the most volatile vitamin, is easily degraded by temperature, humidity, and oxygen during storage. The combination of liposomes and the air-free bottle effectively protects NutriStella Vitamin C from deterioration.

STRENGTHENED IMMUNITY – Vitamin C supports the body during times of malaise, fortifying the immune system and promoting overall well-being. Its supplementation is particularly crucial in autumn and winter when the body faces increased risks.

HIGH ABSORPTION – Liposomal vitamin C, in gel form, is highly bioactive. The liposomal structure shields ascorbic acid molecules from digestive breakdown, facilitating swift entry into the bloodstream. Moreover, absorption through the oral mucosa improves absorption parameters. Rather than opting for unnecessarily high doses that the body excretes, prioritize quality and effectiveness.

STOMACH-FRIENDLY – The liposome structure not only enhances absorption but also safeguards the stomach and digestive system from potential unpleasant side effects associated with vitamin C intake.

STRONG ANTIOXIDANT – Vitamin C exhibits potent antioxidant properties, positively influencing skin health, collagen production, and bone function. It is recommended for those combating stress and aiming to improve energy metabolism and iron absorption.

HIGH DOSAGE – At 250 mg, this product adheres to the maximum daily dose of vitamin C for food supplements, as per updated recommendations from the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment. These guidelines consider both the body’s vitamin C needs and dietary intake in Germany.



Vitamin C contributes to the maintenance of the normal function of the immune system. It plays a crucial role in the response of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, helping sustain an adequate response against pathogens while safeguarding the host from excessive damage.

  • Vitamin C protects neutrophils in leucocytes from oxidative stress during the early stages of an immune response when these cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) to destroy antigens.
  • Similar to neutrophils, vitamin C shields lymphocytes from oxidative damage, playing a pivotal role in their development and function.
  • Vitamin C appears to influence the production of antibodies.
  • It is also involved in the migration of phagocytes, cells with the ability to ingest and sometimes digest foreign particles, toward the infection area.
  • Vitamin C regulates inflammatory response. Studies in animals suggest that vitamin C deficiency is linked with higher circulating histamine levels, which can be rebalanced once vitamin C blood levels are normalized.
  • Furthermore, vitamin C can reduce the production of pro-inflammatory leukocyte-derived cytokines.

Although the role of Vitamin C in the proper function of the immune system is pivotal, current research and data do not confirm preventive properties against common cold and upper respiratory tract infections. However, supplementation of Vitamin C seems to shorten the duration and limit the severity of these infections.

Oxidative stress, a contributor to aging and various diseases, primarily stems from the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The double radical nature of molecular oxygen makes it prone to accepting electrons, leading to the creation of free radicals. Free radicals are natural by-products of processes like breathing, digestion, metabolism, and exposure to external factors such as sunlight, X-rays, stress, and pollution.

If not immediately neutralized, free radicals can trigger a chain reaction in the body, causing damage to DNA, proteins, lipids, and disrupting essential cellular processes like normal cell division.

Vitamin C has demonstrated the ability to suppress free radical generation and alleviate oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Its capacity to donate one or two electrons makes it an excellent reducing agent and antioxidant, both directly and indirectly. Vitamin C can restore the antioxidant properties of fat-soluble vitamin E.

Given that many chronic diseases, including cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, and aging, are associated with oxidative stress, numerous studies focus on Vitamin C’s ROS scavenging activity to prevent oxidative stress-related diseases and its prooxidant properties.

Brain concentrations of Vitamin C are significantly higher than those in the rest of the body. Even after the body is depleted of the vitamin, the brain maintains its levels. Human autopsy studies have revealed that Vitamin C is most abundant in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala. Ascorbic acid is maintained at concentrations 100 times higher than those present in the circulating plasma, underscoring the vitamin’s crucial role in brain functioning.

Age-associated differences in plasma/brain Vitamin C may be linked with age-associated cognitive differences, with the elderly appearing more vulnerable to declines in plasma vitamin C concentrations alongside compromised distribution and regulation of the vitamin in the brain.

Essential brain functions of Vitamin C include:

  • Critical Antioxidant: Protects the brain’s cellular membranes from free radicals generated from neuronal mitochondrial activity and reduces brain inflammation.
  • Neurotransmitter Synthesis Factor: Required to convert tryptophan, an amino acid obtained from consuming protein, into serotonin, and to convert dopamine into norepinephrine.
  • Cofactor for Critical Enzymes: Particularly those that synthesize neurotransmitters like dopamine and adrenaline.
  • Neuromodulator: Assists cells in properly using essential neurological chemicals, regulating the binding of neurotransmitters to receptors and controlling their release.
  • Formation of Myelin Sheaths: An important microelement for the formation of myelin sheaths, insulating layers around nerves, including those in the brain and spinal cord.

Overall, Vitamin C deficiency has been associated with depression and cognitive impairment. Adequate levels of Vitamin C support increased mental energy because Vitamin C plays a vital role in the production of oxygenated blood cells, helping guard against mental fatigue.

Research indicates that high vitamin C blood levels correlate with lower levels of depression, anger, hyperactivity, etc. Recent studies also suggest that Vitamin C supplementation effectively increases serum vitamin C concentrations in subjects with suboptimal vitamin C status, promoting mental vitality, especially work motivation and attentional focus. This contributes to better performance on cognitive tasks that require sustained attention.

Collagen is the primary structural protein in various connective tissues of the body, such as cartilage, bones, tendons, ligaments, and skin. It constitutes the most abundant protein in mammals, making up 25% to 35% of the entire body’s protein content.

Collagen tissues vary in rigidity, from rigid (bone) to compliant (tendon), and may have a gradient from rigid to compliant (cartilage). Collagen is also abundant in corneas, blood vessels, the gut, intervertebral discs, and the dentin in teeth. It makes up one to two percent of muscle tissue and constitutes 6% of the weight of skeletal muscle tissue. Collagen is a crucial component of fibroblasts, which are the most common cells in animal connective tissue.

Together with elastin and soft keratin, collagen is responsible for skin strength and elasticity. Its degradation leads to the development of wrinkles associated with aging.

Vitamin C is an essential component of collagen synthesis and maturation. Its deficiency hampers the formation of robust connective tissue.

In vitro studies comparing newborn and elderly fibroblasts show that elderly cells proliferate at only one-fifth of the rate of newborn cells. However, when vitamin C is added to the culture medium, elderly fibroblasts increase proliferation sixfold, surpassing the proliferation rate of normal unsupplemented newborn fibroblasts. Even newborn fibroblasts proliferate almost four times better when exposed to vitamin C.

Not only do fibroblasts increase proliferation in the presence of vitamin C, but they also synthesize more collagen. Newborn fibroblasts initially synthesize a larger percentage of collagen than elderly cells. However, when elderly cells are exposed to vitamin C in vitro, they double their collagen production, outperforming normal newborn fibroblasts. Surprisingly, even newborn cells double the amount of collagen synthesized when exposed to vitamin C.


New oral liposomal vitamin C formulation: properties and bioavailability

New oral liposomal vitamin C formulation: properties and bioavailability

Vitamin C is the exogenous compound necessary for a variety of metabolic processes; therefore, the efficient delivery is critical for the maintenance of body homeostasis...

Evaluation and clinical comparison studies on liposomal and non-liposomal ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and their enhanced bioavailability

Evaluation and clinical comparison studies on liposomal and non-liposomal ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and their enhanced bioavailability

The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral bioavailability of liposomal vitamin C and non-liposomal vitamin C in healthy, adult, human subjects under fasting conditions through an open label, randomized, single-dose, two-treatment, two-sequence, two-period, two-way crossover, study...

Vitamin C and Immune Function

Vitamin C and Immune Function

Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient for humans, with pleiotropic functions related to its ability to donate electrons...

The neuropsychiatric effects of vitamin C deficiency: a systematic review

The neuropsychiatric effects of vitamin C deficiency: a systematic review

Vitamin C deficiency may be more common than is generally assumed, and the association between vitamin C deficiency and adverse psychiatric effects has been known for centuries...


No. Vitamin C is generally safe, but in large doses (above 2,000mg), it can cause diarrhea and nausea. It does not make sense to ingest high amounts of Vit C since excess will be excreted in urine.
Most common signs of Vit C deficiency are fatigue, weakness, irritability, loss of appetite.

Excessive amounts of vitamin C can cause gut-related issues like diarrhea, cramps, and nausea. It is believed that tolerable upper level lies at 2000 mg a day for an adult, which is almost impossible to reach with just foods containing vitamin C.

You can count on absorbing about 70 to 90 percent of the vitamin C you get from food and supplements, as long as you don’t consume more than 180 milligrams daily, according to the US Office of Dietary Supplements. Your small intestine absorbs less vitamin C as your intake increases, dropping to less than 50 percent when you consume more than 1,000 milligrams, or 1 gram, of vitamin C daily. Absorption isn’t the only process affected with increased intake. Your kidneys also begin to eliminate vitamin C that was absorbed, but not yet metabolized, as you consume more than 80 milligrams daily.
Better not. Vit C contributes to the energy-yielding metabolism thus taking it very late might prevent you from falling asleep.